Terms of Reference for Research Scoping Study on Anticipatory Actions in Nepal

Oxfam in Nepal

Oxfam has been working in Nepal since the early 1980s undertaking various development initiatives addressing the poverty and injustice faced by women and other socially and economically excluded groups. The level of Oxfam's engagement increased substantially after restoration of democracy in 1990 as it became easier for civil society to work in the new political environment. Over the years, Oxfam has worked in partnership with local civil society organisations and the government to promote rural livelihoods, and vulnerable communities' resilience to climatic shocks and disasters. It has also significantly contributed to empowering community people, especially women, to; negotiate with people in power, influence decision making processes, claim rights and essential services to which they are entitled, demand accountability on the part of duty bearers and engage larger masses in advocacy efforts. Oxfam also worked closely with UNHCR in providing assistance to Bhutanese refugees during the 1990s. Oxfam and its long term programme partners believe that the underlying structural causes and drivers of poverty must be addressed if improvements in peoples's lives are to be broad and lasting. Poverty is not one-dimensional; nor is it purely local in its causes and solutions. Therefore, Oxfam's work addresses not only material and technical change, but also the related economic, social, institutional and policy changes which are necessary to end poverty and achieve development and wellbeing. The Oxfam Nepal Vision is: The people of Nepal are empowered and work together to attain a life of dignity with justice and equal rights for all. The Overall Nepal Programme Goal is: to improve the well being of vulnerable people through strengthening their participation in development and governance processes and reducing poverty and suffering.

Details / requirements:

Terms of Reference for Research

Scoping Study on Anticipatory Actions in Nepal.

Oxfam in Nepal


Disaster response, Policy and practices of Anticipatory Actions, Desk review and field facts, Sudur Paschim Province-Nepal, Early Actions Protocols, Disaster-specific matrix   


Oxfam has been working in Nepal since the early 1980s undertaking various development initiatives addressing the poverty and injustice faced by women and other socially and economically excluded groups. Oxfam in Nepal has been implementing its program in three thematic areas:

  1. Gender and Social Justice
  2. Resilience and Climate Justice including humanitarian response.
  3. WASH and Water Governance

Oxfam in Nepal with its partner-NEEDS Nepal has been implementing the Strengthening Community Preparedness, Rapid Response and Recovery (SCOPR3) project from Oct 2020 to Dec 2023 with the funding support from the Margaret A. Cargill Philanthropies (MACP). The said project is being implemented in the four municipalities of Dadeldhura and Kanchanpur districts. The project identifies three primary outcomes - Capacity Development, Asset Protection, and Learning and Knowledge Sharing - all of which address the underlying causes of community vulnerability, and shortcomings in humanitarian preparedness and response systems. Oxfam strives to explore the best options for anticipatory actions as part of its approach to community preparedness, among others.  

Oxfam in Nepal together with their local partner National Environment and Equity Development Society Nepal (NEEDS) Nepal started disaster risk reduction project to strengthen community preparedness, response and recovery capacities at the local level. The project aims to ensure that communities affected by recurrent disasters in highly vulnerable areas in Asia have enhanced capacities for disaster preparedness, response, and recovery, and are better equipped to co-lead on relief efforts in collaboration with local authorities, with the overall aim of reducing vulnerability and suffering among disaster-prone communities. The project is being implemented in the four municipalities of Dadeldhura and Kanchanpur districts. The project identifies three primary outcomes - Capacity Development, Asset Protection, and Learning and Knowledge Sharing - all of which address the underlying causes of community vulnerability, and shortcomings in humanitarian preparedness and response systems. 

As part of learning and sharing outcome, Oxfam in Nepal is planning to conduct research on Community Base Climate Change (CC) adaptation, Disaster Risk Reduction (DRR) and Anticipatory Action in ACT programme areas to reduce the disaster impact. The research will investigate the existing governance structure, policies and plans (national, provincial, and local) related to DRR and CC and how does this this support to anticipatory actions at the local level. Also, what are the key issues, challenges and opportunities can be identified to increase their engagement in the anticipatory actions at community level. 

Currently, Oxfam Nepal is already implementing disaster risk reduction programme and building disaster preparedness and response capacities of the communities, local government, and local humanitarian actors on disaster. The project also strengthened early warning system, coordination mechanism and established local emergency operating centres to anticipate flood disaster. However, there is still needed to understand about the anticipatory action mechanism in Nepal based on existing DRR/CC policies and early warning system at national, provincial, and local level. 


The primary objective of the research is to conduct scoping study of anticipatory action in Nepal including key policies and plans on DRR/CC supporting AA, early warning structure/communication mechanism, protocols in the target area of the project. 

The research will also map existing literature and governance structures along with community perception on anticipatory actions in order to lay the foundation of key strategies and entry points for Oxfam Nepal and partners. 

The more specific objective includes.

  • Scoping and mapping of existing literature on national/provincial/local anticipatory actions governance structure (on DRR and CC which includes plans and policies) along with key stakeholders. 
  • Provide gendered analysis of CC and DRR policies, and practices of implementation with regards to anticipatory actions as a building block of evidence for Oxfam and partners in designing their interventions and engagement of women in disaster preparedness and humanitarian response. 
  • To investigate and capture knowledge and learning on the extent to which the anticipatory actions as well early warning system approaches are playing an effective role in reducing climate vulnerability of their communities.
  • Provide information and analysis around traditional and non-traditional (indigenous’ and scientific) early warning information available to communities for making decision related to anticipatory actions. 
  • Provide key recommendations and entry points for Oxfam Nepal and partners for engagement and implementation of anticipatory actions at the community level. Review current early warning system and provide recommendation for improvement.


There is clear evidence across the world that supporting communities before the disaster can save lives and increase their capacity to reduce the suffering. There are different organisation implementing anticipatory action programme across the world and in Nepal to build the resilience of the communities. Currently, Oxfam in Nepal and local partners are planning to explore anticipatory action strategies at the community level while engaging different stakeholders. 

To gather more insights and information, the consultant will conduct detail literature review related to the anticipatory action particular in Nepal context. The literature includes existing projects, programme related to different INGOs/NGOs/UN and government institutions. Moreover, the consultant will also explore existing opportunities in government disaster management/climate change structures, policies and plans related to implementation of anticipatory actions. 

The research will provide unique opportunity to vulnerable communities and women to identify their best practices, needs and priorities related to the anticipatory actions. The research will review existing early system in terms of information flow from the national to local level and how this information communicated to communities to take action. The findings of this process will provide concrete recommendation to Oxfam and partners to strengthen early warning system, improve communication and coordination among communities, weather forecast institutions, government, and local humanitarian actors to implement anticipatory actions. 

This study identifies gaps in existing legislation, policies, regulations, or directives, which can be highlighted in the study's recommendations. They can also be carried out as part of a policy support initiative related to anticipatory measures. The study should provide key elements for Oxfam and local governments to consider:

  • The activities and their financial mechanisms, including cash and in-kind, that the government and Oxfam can support / implement for the affected people.
  • A compiled list of legal obligations and mandate for such activities and financial mechanisms.
  • A good understanding and confirmation of the elements of the existing practices of anticipatory and its legal basis that can contribute to the recommended activities.

By demonstrating the capacity and opportunities of existing mechanisms at the local level, this study will contribute to the development of a common understanding, approaches and mechanisms of anticipatory actions to contribute to Oxfam's strategy and approach to scaling up such mechanisms in the country at large. 

Oxfam together with their local partner NEEDS Nepal will initiate this research while using participatory approach. The consultant will list down all the key stakeholders which are relevant related to the disaster management and climate change work in Nepal. The research will focus on four municipalities where Oxfam Nepal together with their local partners and communities are implementing disaster risk reduction programme. Oxfam together with local partners, communities and local stakeholders will participate in the research planning, implementation, and validation process. The overall recommendation of the research will be used for programme development and improvement in the existing implementation of the anticipatory action activities. 

The consultant needs to consult Oxfam Nepal to ensure the expectations are uniformly understood and to plan to expediate this assignment processes. 

The consultancy will draw upon the following primary methods: 

  • Desktop research & analysis: To better understand the overall context related to the anticipatory action in Nepal, the consultant will review & assess existing plans, policies and programs related to anticipatory action. 
  • Interviews and Focus Group Discussion: The consultant will organize interviews with different stakeholders which includes CSOs, communities, government, UN, partners, alliances, consultants, regional and global level Oxfam staff. Also review the agenda and discussion points and report of the first national dialogue on anticipatory action, held in Nepal in April 2022
  • Consultation with communities: The consultant will conduct community level field visits to meet with community disaster committees, youth and women groups and people with disability to discuss the existing early warning system and facilitate the development of triggers protocols and action plans. 

It will be important to start the analysis from the federal level, before going down to the provincial and local levels; by consulting all key ministries and authorities involved in DRM (National Disaster Risk Reduction and Management Authority (NDRRMA), Ministry of Home Affairs (MoHA)/Department of national ID and civil registration (DoNIDCR)), the National Planning Commission, along with the Ministry of Federal Affairs and General Administration (MoFAGA), as liaison ministry for all local governments. Consultant need to discuss with Department of Hydrology and Meteorology (DHM) so that short and long range weather forecasting system, its communication channels and other issues related to weather forecast are nicely capture.

The consultant will use different sources which includes published government policies, plans, reports, research/data, and websites; published NGO documents & websites (including research institutions; and the UN; national and international CSOs, bilateral and multilateral aid organizations, academic literature, media articles, unpublished documents sourced through networks, etc.

Also, the consultant will conduct interview/focus group discussion with communities, UN, government, networks, alliances and different Oxfam regional and global teams, National, regional, and international partners (list would be finalized along with Oxfam), including Oxfam staff and partners working on anticipatory action In Nepal.

Gender Consideration 

Gender issues becoming the primary concerns in disaster reduction and response activities and dynamically changing challenges are being observed over the day. This study will strongly consider and develop protocols on gender related issues in anticipatory actions.  

Oxfam in Nepal together with their local partners already implementing disaster risk reduction programme. The programme established Community Disaster Committees and provided different disaster risk reduction and leadership training to women and men under the project. The research will use participatory approaches and will engage women, youth, and people with disability during the research. A detailed methodology will be developed for the research. 

Tasks and deliverables 

Following deliverables are expected by this study: 

  1. Inception report: details of proposed methods, timeline and key approach and tools. 
  2. Draft report 
  3. Final report maximum 30 pages in English with incorporating comments and suggestions provided by Oxfam team.  
  4. Presentation materials, to be presented during inception, draft and final   


The primary reporting officer for this assignment will be Thematic Lead-Oxfam. Other stakeholders are Oxfam and partners staff who are working on DRR. Consultant is expected to work closely with Oxfam US team as well


1Peer Review Complete and Final TORs for advertisement
1st Week of June 023

2Produce inception report, (that contains but not limited to; tools, methods, field plan, interview checklist)
2nd week of June 023

3Consolidation of report, findings, and draft report submission 
End of July 023
See below
4Final report after incorporating inputs and comments from reviewers  
August 2nd week 023 

5PowerPoint Presentation, containing overall report 

Financial - Budget Breakdown

Terms of Payment/ Disbursement:  Payment will be done after the completion of this research study followed by the conditions agreed with Oxfam in Nepal.

Profile of the Firm/Consultant 

This consultancy will be carried out by an experienced and qualified consultant/firm. We are ideally looking for a lead consultant, who led the whole process and facilitator, who support the lead consultant during project sites visit. The consultant/firm will be selected through a competitive and transparent process. Required experiences, academic qualifications, and competencies of the firms and/or the consultant should include: 

  • Master’s degree in DRR or related fields, Ph D preferred
  • Experience in qualitative research methodologies, including in-depth interview, facilitation, and analysis of interview data etc. 
  • Strong analytical skills and proficiency in writing in English and Nepali languages 

Documents for Submission/ Application Process

Interested consulting firm can apply by submitting the following: 

  • A detailed technical proposal including (maximum 5 pages)
    • Description of how your skills and experience match the TOR requirements,
    • Your understanding of the assignment
    • Proposed methodology and work plan
    • Evidence of the related work experience 
  • A financial proposal: should include a detailed budget sheet with breakdowns (maximum 2 pages)
  • Bio-date of expert, CV of lead consultant or consultants 
  • Profile of the consultancy firm – if applied by consultancy firm
  • VAT Registration Certificate
  • Company registration Certificate and renewal
  • Tax clearance certificate 2078/79
  • Contact detail (Name, designation, organization, email ID and phone no.) of 2 referees 

Evaluation process and Criteria  

The total score is 100 points that include 70 points on technical expertise, understanding of the assignment, study design and methodology, and 30 points on financial plan. 

S.NKey Criteria
1Relevant work experiences of the firms, particularly in DRR and Forecast based Actions and/or Anticipatory Actions (to be reflected from organization profile)-20%
2Academic qualifications and related experiences of the proposed team members-30%
3Understanding of assignment along with proposed study design, tools, and methodology-20%
4Cost-effectiveness and realistic budget plan-30% 

Ethical Considerations

The Consultant will be required to take all the necessary actions to handle the collected data responsibly (see Oxfam Responsible Data Policy) to ensure data privacy, anonymity, and confidentiality.

The data collection and the survey(s) should include an effective informed consent form that seeks consent from respondents after being informed on the purpose of this data collection, how the data will be stored, used, who will have access to the information and they have to right to remove themselves from the survey at any point in time. A contact number should be communicated to them to do so. The informed consent should be obtained after providing this information in a concise and clear manner and in the most adequate language.

Our Commitment to Safeguarding 

Oxfam is committed to safeguarding and promoting the welfare of children, young people and adults and expects all staff, consultants, volunteers to share this commitment. We will do everything possible to ensure that only those who are suitable to work within our values are selected to work for us.  

Confidentiality/ Non-Disclosure 

All material issued in connection with this ToR shall remain the property of Oxfam and shall be used only for the purpose of this procurement exercise. All information provided shall be either returned to Oxfam or securely destroyed by unsuccessful applicants at the conclusion of the procurement exercise. 

During the performance of the assignment or at any time after expiry or termination of the Agreement, the Consultant shall not disclose to any person or otherwise make use of any confidential information which s/he has obtained or may in the course of this agreement relating to partner organization/Oxfam, the respondents or otherwise. 

The consultant will be required to sign a non-disclosure/confidentiality agreement as part of their undertaking of this work.  

Intellectual Property, Copyright and Ownership 

Oxfam shall retain all reference materials provided as background used by the Consultant in the delivery of this assignment.  All arising intellectual property, ideas, materials, processes, or processes formed in contemplation, course of, or as result of this work shall be passed to Oxfam without restriction. 

Copyright of all arising documents, data, information, or reports produced by the Consultant under this agreement shall belong to Oxfam and will be passed to Oxfam without restriction. Such documents, data, information, and reports shall not be used by the Consultant for any other purpose other than in conjunction with this assignment, without the express written permission of Oxfam 


The Consulting VAT Registered Firm should submit the technical and financial proposal to Oxfam by 5 June 2023 before 5 pm via mail to consultancy_nepal@oxfam.org.uk, clearly mentioning the title of assignment in the email subject line “Scoping Study on AA” and not exceeding 15 MB.


Category Development and Project, Development / NGO
Openings 1
Position Type Contract
Experience Please check details
Education Graduate (Bachelors)
Posted Date 25 May, 2023
Apply Before 05 Jun, 2023
City Lalitpur